The six types of pull requests you see on GitHub

TL;DR: Whether collaborating on code, data, or prose text, there are lots of different strategies for using pull requests on GitHub. Specifically, just a heads up, sanity check, work in progress (WIP), early feedback, line-by-line review, and pull request to a pull request.”
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Whether collaborating on code, data, or prose text, there are lots of different strategies for using pull requests on GitHub. I once saw a post that outlined a handful of ways teams use pull requests, that seems to be subsequently lost forever, despite looking high and low. Here’s how I see pull requests used at GitHub:

Just a heads up

How it works: Create a pull request and immediately merge it yourself without others’ review.

When to use it: When you’re making a change so uncontroversial or straight forward that no review is required, but you want to let your teammates know that you’ve made the change. Dependency bumps are a good use case.

Sanity check

How it works: Submit a pull request with a minor change, wait a short period for a sniff-test review, and self merge.

When to use it: When you’ve got a small change, potentially in a part of the codebase outside your area of expertise, and you’d like someone with more experience to provide a quick :+1: before your merge the change.

Draft pull request (formerly work-in-progress/WIP)

How it works: Open a draft pull request.

Related draft pull requests announcement blog post

When to use it: When you’ve started a new feature, document, or bugfix, that’s not quite ready for others to review, but you want to let your teammates know that you’re working on the feature. This can be used to prevent the duplication of effort, save work that you’ve started, or complement your team’s workflow.

Early feedback

How it works: Roughly spike out a feature by creating a proof of concept or rough outline that expressed your idea in its final form.

When to use it: When you want feedback on your general approach or the idea itself. Is this a dumb idea? Is there a better way to do this? The content of the pull request exists to convey the idea, and will likely not be the final implementation. This may start as a WIP and may end with a line-by-line review.

Line-by-line review

How it works: Submit a feature-complete pull request and cc relevant teams, asking for their review. Team members will comment line-by-line and re-review as you implement their changes.

When to use it: When you’re ready to :ship: the thing. It may have been started as a work in progress, or for early feedback, but you’ve made it clear that unless you hear otherwise, you’re going to hit merge.

Pull request to a pull request

How it works: You submit a pull request, that instead of requesting a merge into the main branch, requests that its changes be merged into a branch that is the basis of another pull request.

When to use it: When you don’t have write access to the source repository (for example, open source), and would like to make substantial changes to an existing pull request created by another user. For smaller changes, use line-by-line comments with the proposed code.

Originally published December 8, 2015 | View revision history

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Ben Balter is the Director of Engineering Operations and Culture at GitHub, the world’s largest software development platform. Previously, as Chief of Staff for Security, he managed the office of the Chief Security Officer, improving overall business effectiveness of the Security organization through portfolio management, strategy, planning, culture, and values. As a Staff Technical Program manager for Enterprise and Compliance, Ben managed GitHub’s on-premises and SaaS enterprise offerings, and as the Senior Product Manager overseeing the platform’s Trust and Safety efforts, Ben shipped more than 500 features in support of community management, privacy, compliance, content moderation, product security, platform health, and open source workflows to ensure the GitHub community and platform remained safe, secure, and welcoming for all software developers. Before joining GitHub’s Product team, Ben served as GitHub’s Government Evangelist, leading the efforts to encourage more than 2,000 government organizations across 75 countries to adopt open source philosophies for code, data, and policy development. More about the author →

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